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Corrosion in titanium dental implants: literature review
N Adya, M Alam, T Ravindranath, A Mubeen, B Saluja
July-September 2005, 5(3):126-131
The corrosion of dental biomaterials is a pertinent clinical issue. In spite of the recent innovative metallurgical and technological advances and remarkable progress in the design and development of surgical and dental materials, failures do occur. The present article describes the problem of corrosion in titanium dental implants. The clinical significance of the dental implant corrosion is highlighted and the most common form of corrosion i.e. galvanic corrosion is emphasized both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The article is presented keeping in view of carrying out different studies for indigenous titanium dental implant and indigenous alloys. The Department of Dental Research at Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences has developed indigenous Titanium Dental Implants and Base metal Alloys. The studies carried out have proven their biocompatibility and suitability to be used for oral defects. The aim of the study is to evaluate galvanic corrosion current around indigenously developed Titanium Dental Implant when coupled to a Base metal Alloy.
  4 26,229 1,342
Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with an orbital defect using a simplified approach
Supriya Manvi, Bilquis Ghadiali
April-June 2008, 8(2):116-118
The rehabilitation of facial defects is a complex task requiring a specific design of the technique to be used in individual patient. The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant orbital prosthesis has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes a simplified technique for the fabrication of a silicone orbital prosthesis by modifying a stock ocular prosthesis to achieve ideal fit and esthetics. Multidisciplinary management and team approach are essential in providing accurate and effective rehabilitation.
  2 2,746 385
Use of acrylic resin base as an aid in retaining silicone orbital prosthesis
Satyabodh S Guttal, Narendra P Patil, Ramesh K Nadiger, KB Rachana, Dharnendra , Narendra Basutkar
April-June 2008, 8(2):112-115
Orbital defects with total loss of eyelids and eyeball cannot be satisfactorily repaired by reconstructive surgery. While prosthetic replacement is the treatment of choice owing to its acceptable and life-like appearance, retention of the orbital prosthesis is an important factor for success of the prosthesis. This paper describes a technique for retention of silicone orbital prosthesis using acrylic resin base, wherein the latter is attached to the eyeglass frame.
  2 2,649 371
Effect of the post geometry and material on the stress distribution of restored upper central incisors using 3D finite element models. Stress distribution on incisors with posts
WA Vasconcellos, CA Jr. Cimini, RC Albuquerque
July-September 2006, 6(3):139-144
This study evaluated the effect of geometry and material of posts on the stress distribution in maxillary central incisors, using the finite element method. Four 3D models were developed: (i) healthy tooth and restored teeth using (ii) tapered, (iii) cylindrical and (iv) two-stage cylindrical posts. Materials used were stainless steel, titanium, zirconium dioxide, carbon and glass fibers on Bis-GMA matrix. Two stress concentration regions were verified: (i) adjacent to the alveolar bone crest and (ii) dentin-post boundary. Tensile and compressive stresses were concentrated on the palatal and facial surface, respectively, for all the analyzed models. In the dentin portion close to the alveolar bone crest, different anatomical form and material posts presented similar patterns of stress distribution. However, in the dentin-post boundary, more favorable results were presented by glass fibers and carbon fibers posts, followed by titanium, being the worst results associated to the use of stainless-steel or zirconium dioxide posts. Still in the dentin-post boundary, tapered posts presented more favorable results than cylindrical posts, followed by two-stage cylindrical posts, which presented the highest levels of stress concentrations. It was concluded that the insertion of post alters the pattern of stress distribution when compared with the healthy tooth and that smaller stress concentrations are associated to the use of glass fiber or carbon fiber tapered posts.
  2 5,399 444
Rapid prototyping technology in maxillofacial prosthodontics: Basics and applications
Medha Dilip Joshi (Bhuskute), SP Dange, AN Khalikar
October-December 2006, 6(4):175-178
Curiosity is the Mother of 'INNOVATION'. Advent of rapid prototyping technology has opened up new perspectives for design & production in the field of Prosthodontics.Rapid prototyping refers to the automatic construction of mechanical models with 3D printers or stereolithography machines. When attempting to restore a face with a prosthesis, the prosthesis should ideally be customized to restore the anatomy as closely as possible. This process is difficult & time consuming & demands a high level of artistic skill to form a mirror image & achieve a good esthetic match. Rapid prototyping methodologies use an additive process of building an object in layers defined by a computer model that has been virtually sliced. Limitations to use of rapid prototyping technology include the high cost of the equipment, complicated machinery needed, and reliance on special expertise to run the machinery during production .The expense could be justified in light of the many other applications that could benefit from the rapid prototyping which includes construction of surgical stent, fabrication of burn stents ,without subjecting sensitive burn tissues to impression- taking procedures, manufacturing of lead shields to protect healthy tissue during radiotherapy & production of study models prior to surgery for pre-surgical planning. This article reviews the development & current technology available in rapid prototyping & application of this innovative technology in Prosthodontics.
  2 7,173 792
Occlusion indicators: A review
Ramakrishna Rajan Babu, Sanjna Vibhu Nayar
October-December 2007, 7(4):170-174
Any prosthesis replacing missing teeth aims towards establishing an occlusal contact that is harmonious with the position of the condyles and the musculature of the mandible. A premature occlusal contact may disrupt this harmony that may lead to conditions such as trauma from occlusion, periodontal disease, bruxism and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. In order to locate these interferences and to refine the occlusal contacts, indicators such as waxes, articulating papers, foil, film, silk strips and newer materials such as the T-Scan and virtual dental patient are available. Their sensitivity, marking ability and method of usage vary based on their characteristics, oral environment and the interpretation of the clinicians regarding the markings. Hence, a thorough knowledge of the various occlusion indicators available, their method of usage, interpretation of their markings and their limitations is essential prior to their usage.
  2 7,915 1,422
Prosthetic management of patient with ocular defect
PJ Doshi, B Aruna
January-March 2005, 5(1):37-38
The eye is a vital organ not only in terms of vision but also being an important component of facial expression. Loss of eye has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Treatment of such cases includes implants and acrylic eye prosthesis. Although implant eye prosthesis has superior outcome, due to economic factors it may not be advisable in all patients. So a custom-made ocular prosthesis is a good alternative. A case of a custom-made ocular acrylic prosthesis is presented here, which had acceptable fit, retention and esthetics.
  1 8,123 618
Rehabilitation of an acquired maxillary defect
M Srinivasan, TV Padmanabhan
July-September 2005, 5(3):155-157
Prosthetic rehabilitation of acquired maxillary defects can be achieved satisfactorily if all facets of treatment planning and design considerations are taken well into account prior to the rehabilitation process. In many cases effective obturation is achieved but in the relative majority the prosthesis is usually rejected by the patient and the out come is a failure. Complications associated with maxillary defects limit the treatment protocols to a great extent. The prosthodontist has to identify these problem areas and suitably device feasible optons and incorporate them in the design. A case of acquired maxillary defect with limited mouth opening and unfavourable undercuts in the defect was successfully treated by making a two piece hollow bulb obturator. The two pieces were connected by the use of magnets. Additionally a transitional implant was placed so as to aid as an auxiliary retentive aid to enhace the overall treatment outcome. The methodology greatly reduced the chairside time and number of vists in the patient prospective and effective obturation was satisfactorily achieved.
  1 8,888 700
Rehabilitation of a rhinocerebral mucormycosis patient
Rakesh Dhiman, Vimal Arora, N Kotwal
April-June 2007, 7(2):88-91
A 17 year-old boy reported to the Army Dental Centre (R and R) with a disfigured face with ocular and palatal defects due to uncontrolled diabetes and mucormycosis fungal infection. The case was rehabilitated with a silicone eye prosthesis and a hollow-bulb obturator mutually retained with indigenous rare earth Nd-Fe-B (Neodymium-Iron-Boron) magnets.
  1 6,890 333
Nasal prosthesis for a patient with mammalian bite injury
Satyabodh S Guttal, Narendra P Patil, Ramesh K Nadiger, Anurag Hasti
January-March 2007, 7(1):43-45
Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, the presence of foreign objects, animal or human bites or burns. Animal bites to the face are generally caused by the attacks of mammals like dogs, donkeys, bear and wolf. Since an individual's self-image and self-esteem are often derived from his or her own facial appearance, any injury affecting these features requires particular attention. We present here a case of prosthetic rehabilitation for destructed nasal cartilage caused by a bear bite. The patient was treated with a nasal prosthesis made with acrylic resin, which provided acceptable esthetics and psychological benefit to the patient. Spectacle glasses helped to retain the prosthetic nose.
  1 4,717 437
Extra-oral prosthetic rehabilitation of facial defects: A low cost alternative
Prahlad Duggal, ML Sharma, AS Chadda
January-March 2007, 7(1):40-42
Rehabilitation in patients with facial defects requires a multidisciplinary approach involving a head and neck surgeon, a maxillofacial prosthodontist and a reconstructive surgeon. Extra-oral prosthetic rehabilitation complements reconstructive surgery in patients with facial defects especially- in our set-up where economic factors are a major consideration for the patient. We discuss a case of facial injury as a result of a bear attack for which an extra-oral facial prosthesis was applied to the patient at a fraction of the cost of reconstructive surgery.
  1 4,672 460
Liquid-supported denture: A gentle option
Brajesh Dammani, Santosh Shingote, Smita Athavale, Dilip Kakade
January-March 2007, 7(1):35-39
The ideal properties of a complete denture are adequate rigidity on the polished surface to bear masticatory forces and at the same time, flexibility and softness on the tissue surface for proper and even distribution of the masticatory forces. The problem with a conventional denture is that on its tissue surface, the denture is rigid leading to uneven distribution of load. This drawback even worsens in the case of flabby, atrophic and unemployed ridges with excessive bone resorption. Various methods and materials have been used to give a cushioning effect to the tissues when dentures are actually in use including liquid-supported dentures. The complete denture is designed so that the base is covered with a preshaped, closed fitting, flexible, foil. This technique allows continued adaptation of the denture to the mucosa in the resting and functional states. A complete denture will not have a good prognosis if it violates the foundation on which it rests. Liquid-supported dentures eliminate the main disadvantages encountered due to rigid denture base materials thereby providing proper retention, stability, support and comfort to the patient.
  1 6,332 959
Reconstruction of a cranial defect with an alloplastic implant
Sandeep Kumar, Seema Gupta, Nayana Prabhu
July-September 2007, 7(3):150-152
Cranial defects occur most frequently during wartime, but their incidence during peace time, as a result of accident or disease, makes knowledge of cranioplasty useful to the interested practitioner. Trauma accounts for most of the cranial defects. Numerous materials have been historically employed for the restoration of cranial defects. Heat-polymerized methyl methacrylate alloplastic cranial implant requires presurgical fabrication of the implants. It facilitates the reproduction of the contours, and the tissue bed is not exposed to the heat of polymerization or to the free monomer. In this study, a case report has been presented in which heat-cured acrylic resin alloplastic implant has been fabricated for a patient with left frontal bone defect.
  1 4,748 332
Implant-retained orbital prosthesis
Kanchan P Dholam, Hrishikesh A Pusalkar, Prabha Yadav, Pravin P Bhirangi
January-March 2008, 8(1):55-58
An 11-year-old woman reported with rhabdomyosarcoma of the right eye, with cranial involvement. The patient had received multimodal treatment comprising chemotherapy and orbital exenteration. Implant-retained orbital restoration was considered after a decade of the curative treatment. One implant was placed in the supraorbital ridge and the other implant, in the frontal process of the zygoma. Subsequently, implant-supported magnet-retained prosthesis was fabricated.
  1 2,527 356
Restoration of nasal defect with implant-retained nose prosthesis
Kanchan P Dholam, Kanti G Shetty, Pravin P Bhirangi
October-December 2007, 7(4):196-198
In patients with the loss of facial structures due to neoplasms, trauma or congenital deformities, reconstruction using autogenous tissue is a complex and multistage procedure with an unsatisfactory outcome. Prosthetic reconstruction becomes the treatment modality of choice in such cases. A prosthesis fabricated on an osseointegrated implant is an excellent method to rehabilitate such patients. In these procedures, permanent percutaneous connections anchored in the underlying bone support the facial prosthesis (auricular orbital or nasal prosthesis).
  1 4,169 336
An investigation into the transverse and impact strength of a new indigenous high-impact denture base resin, DPI- tuff and its comparison with most commonly used two denture base resins
R Arundati, NP Patil
July-September 2006, 6(3):133-138
An investigation into the transverse and impact strength of a new indigenous high - impact denture base resin, DPI- TUFF and its comparison with two most commonly used two denture base resins. INTRODUCTION: The heat cure denture base resins are extensively used for their excellent properties such as ease of handling, durability and esthetics etc. However, their strength properties are field for ongoing research, leading to various modifications of the resins to improve its strength, which include the high - impact resins. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: A study was carried out to evaluate and compare the transverse and impact strength of a new high - impact denture base resin and it was compared with two most commonly available resins in the market. The materials used were DPI-TUFF, Lucitone 199 and DPI heat cure denture base resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 resin samples were prepared (60 samples for transverse strength and 60 samples for impact strength) from three different materials. The samples were prepared using the short and long curing cycle and tested under dry conditions and after immersion in water for a week. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The obtained values for transverse and impact strength were subjected to statistical analysis. A student's T-test was performed to determine the difference between the materials selected. CONCLUSION: The DPI-TUFF high impact denture base resin appears to be comparatively superior to the other two resins, with mean transverse strength of 115.0 MPa and impact strength of 18.95 kJ/m2. The dry strength of the samples of the materials tested show that it is greater than after immersion of the samples in water at 37șC for a week. The long curing cycle shows considerably higher values of transverse and impact strength as compared to short curing cycle.
  1 6,224 460
Evaluation of surface roughness of glazed and polished ceramic surface on exposure to fluoride gel, bleaching agent and aerated drink: An in vitro study
KR Kamala, H Annapurni
July-September 2006, 6(3):128-132
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The effect of acidic solutions on the surface roughness of ceramic material is not well documented. PURPOSE: Evaluate the surface roughness of three acidic solutions on exposure to two ceramic materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: About 40 discs (10 mm diameter, 2 mm thick) were made from the following ceramic: low-fusing ceramic (Ivoclar classic) Group A and all ceramic (Ivoclar IPS empress 2) Group B. Each disc abraded with medium-grit diamond on one half of disc and polished with diamond paste while other half retains the glaze. The discs (10 specimens/group) immersed in 1.23% APF Gel, 16% carbamide peroxide, Coca-cola and distilled water (control). The surface roughness evaluated with surface profiler, before and after exposure to acidic solutions followed by SEM analysis. The data analyzed using Student's t -test and Student's independent t -test. Increase in surface roughness was calculated in percentage change. RESULTS: For Group A, Ra values for glazed surface were significantly higher than Ra values before exposure to acidic solutions (1.07 ± 0.17 mm, 1.090.33 mm, 1.29 ± 0.33 mm and P <0.05). For Group B, glazed surface showed higher values after exposure, not at significant level. Polished surfaces had no effect on exposure to acidic solutions. Coca-cola showed higher percentage changes in surface roughness among acidic solutions. SEM showed acidic solutions etched the ceramic surfaces of both materials. CONCLUSION: Polishing ceramic with diamond paste provides smoother surface than glazed surface. Roughening of porcelain may occur following application of fluoride gel, bleaching agent and on exposure to Coca-cola.
  1 5,736 424
Evaluation of implant stability and crestal bone loss around the implant prior to prosthetic loading: A six month study
P Singh, HG Garge, VS Parmar, M Viswambaran, MM Goswami
January-March 2006, 6(1):33-37
Context: Dental implantology is the state of the art technique to replace missing teeth. Crestal bone loss along implant surface jeopardizes its longevity and success of treatment. Aims: This study evaluates the implant stability and the crestal bone loss along the implant surface six months after the implant placement, but before prosthetically loading it. Materials and Methods: 100 two-stage implants were placed in 56 patients. Digital OPG was taken on the day of implant placement. After six months, at the time of second stage surgery, the implant stability was evaluated by the Periotest instrument. The crestal bone loss on the mesial and distal side of the implant was evaluated on digital OPG. Results: Six months after the implant placement, Periotest evaluation showed a mean of 1.9, which indicated that implants were well osseointegrated and stable. Radiographic evaluation on digital OPG showed a mean crestal bone loss of 0.6mm on the mesial side of implant and 0.9 mm on distal side of implant. Conclusions: Even before prosthetically loading the two-stage implant, crestal bone loss of 0.6 to 0.9mm occurred around the implant. The smooth polished collar design of the implant may have contributed to crestal bone loss.
  1 7,382 593
An in-vitro evaluation of flexural strength of direct and indirect provisionalization materials
S Dagar, A Pakhan, A Tunkiwala
July-September 2005, 5(3):132-135
With the advent of newer provisional crown and bridge material it has become imperative to evaluate their strength and know the tissue response of these materials in order to select the appropriate one. This study takes a comparative view of two commonly used acrylic resin materials i.e. self polymerizing poly - methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and heat polymerizing poly - methyl methacrylate with a newly introduced composite resin Protemp-II, claiming better handling, strength and esthetics. To simulate the oral condition, the fracture resistance of selected materials was tested by three point bent test on Instron testing machine. The highest values for fracture resistance were displayed by heat polymerized PMMA followed by Protemp-II and self polymerized PMMA.
  1 5,069 344
Comparative evaluation of dimensional stability of three types of interocclusal recording materials: An in vitro study
K Karthikeyan, H Annapurni
January-March 2007, 7(1):24-27
Statement of Problem : Interocclusal recording materials should have good dimensional stability for precise articulation. Purpose :The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional stability of three types of interocclussal recording materials at various time intervals. Materials and Methods : The materials used in the study were polyvinylsiloxane (Virtual), zinc oxide eugenol paste (Superbite) and Bite registration wax (Alumax). The test was carried out using a mold of the American Dental Association (ADA) specification No. 19. A total of 30 samples were made with each group consisting of ten samples. The samples were measured using an optical microscope with a micrometer provision. The measurements were made at time intervals of 1, 24, 48 and 72 hrs. Results : Five readings were taken for each sample at each time interval and the mean was considered to measure the dimensional change by comparing with that of the original measurement in the die. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-(Honestly Significant Differences) HSD test. The mean percentage dimensional change at various time intervals: I) Group A 1 h-0.22%, 24 h-0.48%, 48 h-0.66%, 72 h-0.79%; II) Group B 1 h-0.58%, 24 h-0.93%, 48 h-1.23%, 72 h-1.46% III) Group C 1 h-0.44%, 24 h-0.60%, 48 h-0.77%, 72 h-1.07%, respectively. Group A was dimensionally the most stable of the three groups followed by Group C and then Group B. Conclusion : Dimensional stability is influenced by both the "material" and "time" factors and is found to decrease as the time factor increased. Polyvinylsiloxane (Virtual, Group A) was dimensionally the most stable followed by zinc oxide eugenol paste (Superbite, Group C) and then Bite registration wax (Alumax, Group B).
  1 5,487 812
A study on prosthodontic awareness and needs of an aging Indian rural population
Saumyendra V Singh, Arvind Tripathi
January-March 2007, 7(1):21-23
More than 80% of India lives in villages, who in contrast to their urban counterparts, are mostly illiterate and ignorant. The educated few migrate from rural to urban areas for money and better opportunities. For similar reasons, dentists prefer to settle in the urban scene. The obvious sufferers of this situation are the rural aged. The purpose of this study therefore, was to identify the prosthodontic need, the degree of its fulfillment, awareness of the need and reasons for unfulfilled need in this Indian rural aging subpopulation. The study area consisted of a group of six villages collectively known as 'Sarora' situated in district Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study population was divided on the basis of age, sex, education and economic status in order to facilitate comparisons. Interviews and clinical examination were the tools of the study. The collected data was then subjected to statistical analysis. The edentulous study population comprised 10.1% of the total study population of which 73.1% had never visited a dentist. The dentulous and the partially dentulous populations comprised 11% and 96.5% of the study population respectively and the latter was found to have unfulfilled prosthodontic need. It was concluded that outreach programs are essential to improve the condition of the rural aging population.
  1 4,536 521
Biometric relationship between intercanthal dimension and the widths of maxillary anterior teeth
Ulhas E Tandale, Shankar P Dange, Arun N Khalikar
July-September 2007, 7(3):123-125
Problem: Selection of appropriately sized maxillary anterior teeth is one of the difficult aspects of esthetics in complete denture prosthodontics. Many attempts have been made to establish methods for estimating the combined width of maxillary anterior teeth and central incisors using anatomical landmarks, but depending on a single method for this purpose is not advisable in such a crucial esthetic stage. This study attempts to provide a guideline along with other methods for determining this relationship. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the intercanthal dimension and four mesiodistal width combination of the maxillary anterior teeth. Setting and Design: This study has a cross-sectional design. The work was performed in a dental college and hospital. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficient with paired t test with a confidence interval level of 95%; this is determined on the basis of the sample size. Materials and Methods: Maxillary anterior teeth of 210 patients were examined. The intercanthal distance was measured between the median angels of the palpebral fissure. The mean widths of two central incisors, combined width of the four incisors and combined width of six anterior teeth were intraorally determined at their widest dimensions. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the intercanthal distance and the four measurements of maxillary anterior teeth. Results: After the statistical analysis, it was found that biometric ratios of 1: 0.271 and 1: 1.428 could be used to estimate the central incisor width and the combined widths of the six anterior teeth, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the intercanthal distance can be used as a preliminary method for determining the width of the maxillary anterior teeth during the initial selection of the teeth for an edentulous patient.
  1 5,906 543
A study to evaluate the transverse strength of repaired acrylic denture resins with conventional heat-cured, autopolymerizing and microwave-cured resins: An in vitro study
Manisha Agarwal, Ajay Nayak, RB Hallikerimath
January-March 2008, 8(1):36-41
Statement of Problem: Acrylic resin dentures are susceptible to fracture after clinical use; it is an unresolved problem in prosthodontics. The repair procedure should be simple, strong and should not affect dimensional accuracy. Purpose: This study evaluated the transverse strength of a conventional heat-polymerized (DPI-Heat Cure, Group I) acrylic resin and a microwave-polymerized (Acron MC, Group III) acrylic resin that were repaired with the same resins and with an autopolymerized acrylic resin (DPI-Repair Resin, Group II). Materials and Methods: Sixty rectangular specimens of Groups I and III and 15 of Group II were manufactured and stored in distilled water at room temperature for 7 days. Forty-five specimens of Groups I and III were selected randomly. Fifteen specimens of each material remained intact (control), 15 from each group were sectioned in the middle to create a 10-mm gap and repaired with the materials of Groups I, II and III. After 7 days of storage at room temperature, transverse strength of the repaired and intact specimens was measured using a 3-point bending test. The nature of failure was noted as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. Student's unpaired t -test was performed. Results: The intact microwave-cured resin (Group III) showed the highest transverse strength value (90.25 MPa), which was significantly stronger ( P < 0.05) than other materials tested. No statistically significant difference was noted amongst the repaired groups. Repaired specimens exhibited three types of failure: adhesive (15.56%), cohesive (15.56%) and mixed being the maximum (68.89%). Conclusion: Microwave-polymerized resin showed the highest intact transverse strength, and autopolymerized resin exhibited repair strength similar to those found for the conventional heat- and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins.
  1 2,954 418
Imaging in implantology
S Bhat, S Shetty, KK Shenoy
January-March 2005, 5(1):10-14
Success in implant placement largely depends on presurgical evaluation and treatment planning. One can use a number of tools for this purpose. Imaging is an irreplaceable part of this armentarium. Today both film and filmless imaging techniques are used. This article highlights the evolution of various implant-imaging modalities from plain film radiography to the present 3D imaging.
  1 6,585 607
Ocular impressions: An overview
Kamalakanth K Shenoy, P Venkat Ratna Nag
January-March 2007, 7(1):5-7
The making of an ocular prosthesis after enucleation of the eye or the making of a cover shell prosthesis following evisceration requires an impression of the remaining ocular tissues. An accurate impression of these tissues facilitates a close adaptation of the custom prosthesis to the tissue bed, resulting in better potential for movement. This article reviews various ocular impression techniques as proposed by various authors.
  1 6,848 1,026
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