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 Table of Contents  
RESEARCH
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 225-232

Evaluation of customized cobalt-chromium abutments fabricated with different manufacturing process versus titanium stock abutments on the marginal misfit -An in vitro study


1 Department of Prosthodontics, Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Rama Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission27-Jul-2021
Date of Decision26-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance08-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Ramesh Chowdhary
Department of Prosthodontics, Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru - 560 098, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jips.jips_381_21

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  Abstract 


Aim: Accurate fit of the abutment to the implant is required for the uniform load distribution throughout the assembly. The study aims to compare the marginal misfit of titanium stock abutments with the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) customized abutments fabricated with the different manufacturing processes in internal hex implant-abutment connection using an appropriate scanning technique.
Setting and Design: In vitro comparative study.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 abutments were included in the study. Ten titanium stock abutments were used as control (Group CN) and 30 CoCr abutments were fabricated and taken as the test group. Stock abutments were scanned and from obtained images test group abutments were fabricated as follows: Ten cast abutments (Group CA), 10 sintered abutments (Group SA), and 10 milled abutments (Group MA). Endosseous implanst having internal hex connections were matched with 10 stock abutments and 30 customized CoCr abutments. Implants were mounted in a clear epoxy resin block and the abutments were then fitted onto the implants with a torque of 30Ncm. The marginal discrepancy at implant-abutment connections was measured with confocal laser scanning microscope.
Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test was done for statistical analysis.
Results: One-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in marginal misfit of abutments. The mean marginal misfit was lowest for stock abutments (0.35 ± 0.009 μm). Among the customized abutments, the mean marginal misfit was highest for cast abutments (2.44 ± 0.445 μm) followed by sintered abutments (1.67 ± 0.232 μm) and least for milled abutments (0.65 ± 0.041 μm). A significant difference was found in marginal misfit with cast abutments and sintered abutments when compared to stock abutments (P < 0.001). The difference in marginal misfit was insignificant between stock abutments and milled abutments (P = 0.052).
Conclusion: Difference in marginal misfit exists between the titanium stock abutments and customized CoCr abutments. Among the customized abutments, milled CoCr abutments have the least marginal discrepancy and cast CoCr abutments have a maximum marginal discrepancy. Milled CoCr abutments can be used as an alternative to titanium stock abutments.

Keywords: Confocal laser scanning microscope, implant-abutment interface, marginal misfit, milled abutment, sintered abutment


How to cite this article:
Sutradhar W, Mishra SK, Chowdhary R. Evaluation of customized cobalt-chromium abutments fabricated with different manufacturing process versus titanium stock abutments on the marginal misfit -An in vitro study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2022;22:225-32

How to cite this URL:
Sutradhar W, Mishra SK, Chowdhary R. Evaluation of customized cobalt-chromium abutments fabricated with different manufacturing process versus titanium stock abutments on the marginal misfit -An in vitro study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 10];22:225-32. Available from: https://www.j-ips.org/text.asp?2022/22/3/225/351281




  Introduction Top


Dental implant abutments are of two types: stock abutments supplied by the manufacturers, which matches the respective implant systems; and custom-made abutments made with (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing [CAD/CAM]). The custom-made abutments contoured the soft tissues well around the restorations during the healing stage.[1] These abutments provide a natural emergence profile to the implant prosthesis. Crown margin depth can be customized for better hygiene and esthetics.[2]

The implant-abutment assembly attached with a screw produces an interface between the abutment-implant junction.[3],[4] There should not be any vertical misfit between the abutment and implant, a key requirement to secure function and the esthetic requirements for long-term implant success.[5],[6],[7] The gap usually created between the abutment and the implant may result in the microleakage of bacteria and their metabolic products causing inflammation of the peri-implant tissues with successive bone loss.[8],[9]

The presence of the microgap sometimes causes micromovements and transfers the stresses from the abutment to the implant leading to screw loosening, fracture of the screw, or the abutment with the reduction in the prosthetic screw preload.[10],[11] Internal hex abutment-implant interface has been introduced with an attempt to reduce the mechanical drawbacks related to external connection with long-term stability, less screw loosening, and fracture, better aesthetics, and reduced crestal bone loss.[12],[13],[14],[15]

Titanium and zirconia are widely used as implant abutments;[16],[17],[18],[19] however, the use of cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) as abutments is sparse.[19],[20],[21] Previously published literature has studied the microgap at the abutment-implant interface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscope. However, these microscopic techniques are not very suitable for accurate measurement of the misfit between the components fabricated with different manufacturing processes.[22],[23],[24] Baschong et al.[25] stated that a Confocal microscope helps in getting better three-dimensional (3D) images as compared to SEM and it also does not require any additional preparation of the sample to be recorded. This microscope has been already in use for evaluating the surface topography and biofilm formation on dental tissues and implants.[26]

The marginal fit has a key role in the osseointegration and success of dental implants. The manufacturing process for the fabrication of abutment can affect the precision of marginal fit of the abutment with the implant.[21] Hence, the present in-vitro research was done to compare the marginal misfit of titanium tock abutments with CoCr customized abutments fabricated with different manufacturing processes (cast, sintered, and milled) in an internal hex implant-abutment connection using an appropriate scanning technique. The null hypothesis was that no difference exists in the marginal misfit of titanium stock abutments and CoCr customized abutments fabricated using different manufacturing processes.


  Materials and Methods Top


In this study, a power analysis was established by G * power, version 3.0.1 (Franz Faul universitat, Kiel, Germany). A sample size of 40 samples (10 in each group) which yield 80% power to detect significant differences, with effect size of 0.57 and a significance level at 0.05 were needed. Based on the power analysis, 40 abutments were included in the study. Ten titanium stock abutments were used as control [Group CN, [Figure 1]a], and 30 CoCr abutments were fabricated and taken as a test group [Figure 1]b, [Figure 1]c, [Figure 1]d. Stock abutments were scanned [Figure 2]a and from obtained images test group abutments were fabricated as follows: 10 cast abutments (Group CA), 10 sintered abutments (Group SA), and 10 milled abutments (Group MA). The cast abutments were fabricated from CoCr alloy with the help of milled polymethyl methacrylate patterns [Figure 2]b obtained from the scanned data utilizing the lost wax casting technique. Cobalt chromium sintered abutments were fabricated using the laser beam, in which powdered raw material was placed in a tray (HBD 100D, Guangdong Hanbang 3D Tech Co. Ltd, China) [Figure 2]c. A laser beam was spotted over the working tray to increase the temperature of the powder and make the particles bind together layer by layer to obtain the desired shape. Cobalt chromium abutments of the milled group were fabricated utilizing the milling procedure (Ceramill, Amann Girrbach, Austria) where the cutting tools remove the excess material gradually and shape the component [Figure 2]d.[19]
Figure 1: (a) Stock abutments. (b) Cast abutments. (c) Sintered abutments. (d) Milled abutments

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Figure 2: (a) Scanned image of the stock abutment. (b) Milling of polymethyl methacrylate patterns for the fabrication of cast abutments using lost wax casting technique. (c) Fabrication of Sintered abutments with laser sintering machine. (d) Milling of cobalt-chromium alloy for fabrication of milled abutments

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Endosseous dental implants (5.0 mm diameter × 10 mm length) with internal hex connection (Alpha Bio Tec, Israel) were matched with 10 titanium stock abutments and 30 CoCr abutments. Clear epoxy resin blocks of 20 mm × 20 mm × 20 mm in dimension were made. A central borehole of 5 mm length × 5 mm diameter was made to place half of the length of an implant as required for scanning.[18],[21] The implant was placed in the borehole and fixed with epoxy resin. The abutments were then fitted onto the implant with an abutment screw with a torque of 30Ncm [Figure 3]a, [Figure 3]b, [Figure 3]c, [Figure 3]d.
Figure 3: Abutments were screwed to the implants with a torque of 30Ncm. (a) Stock abutment. (b) Cast abutment. (c) Sintered abutment. (d) Milled abutment

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Implant-abutment connections were evaluated under SEM for the marginal discrepancy.[21] When the samples were scanned under the SEM, the images obtained could not record the marginal depth because of the curvature of the abutment with that of the implant. The implant used in the study was an internal hex due to which the margins of the implant covered the seated abutment. Hence, it was decided that the samples need to be scanned by an alternative scanner, which can record this curvature.

A confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) (FV1000; Olympus, Finland) was selected for this and after a few initial trial scans, it was found that a CLSM was an appropriate tool for measuring the marginal discrepancy in this situation and so used in the study. This microscope removes the signals which are out-of-focus, with illumination at a single point at a slower speed. With the CLSM technique, the optical resolution and contrast of the micrographs were increased.[27],[28],[29],[30]

The analysis was performed with statistical software (IBM Corp. Released 2019. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp). One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test was done to find significant (P < 0.05) difference in between the groups.


  Results Top


Comparison of mean marginal misfit at the implant-abutment junction of the stock abutment, cast abutment, sintered abutment, and milled abutment is presented in [Table 1], [Graph 1]. The marginal misfit at the implant-abutment junction was compared using One-way ANOVA which revealed a significant difference in the marginal misfit of abutments (P < 0.001). The mean marginal misfit was lowest for stock abutments (0.35 ± 0.009 μm) [Figure 4]a, [Figure 4]b, [Figure 4]c, [Figure 4]d, [Figure 4]e, [Figure 4]f. Among the customized abutments, marginal misfit was highest for cast abutments (2.44 ± 0.445 μm) [Figure 5]a, [Figure 5]b, [Figure 5]c, [Figure 5]d, [Figure 5]e, [Figure 5]f followed by sintered abutments (1.67 ± 0.232 μm) [Figure 6]a, [Figure 6]b, [Figure 6]c, [Figure 6]d, [Figure 6]e, [Figure 6]f and least for milled abutments (0.65 ± 0.041 μm) [Figure 7]a, [Figure 7]b, [Figure 7]c, [Figure 7]d, [Figure 7]e, [Figure 7]f.
Table 1: Comparison of mean marginal misfit at the implant-abutment junction of the stock abutment, cast abutment, sintered abutment, and milled abutment

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Figure 4: (a) Two-dimensional laser image of scanned stock abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (b) Three-dimensional laser image of scanned stock abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (c) Two-dimensional grayscale scanned image of stock abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (d) Three-dimensional grayscale scanned image of stock abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (e) Two-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature of the stock abutment at the implant-abutment surface. (f) Three-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature of the stock abutment at the implant-abutment surface

Click here to view
Figure 5: (a) Two-dimensional laser image of scanned cast abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (b) Three-dimensional laser image of scanned cast abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (c) Two-dimensional grayscale scanned image of cast abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (d) Three-dimensional grayscale scanned image of cast abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (e) Two-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature at the cast abutment at the implant-abutment surface. (f) Three-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature at the cast abutment at the implant-abutment surface

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Figure 6: (a) Two-dimensional laser image of scanned sintered abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (b) Three-dimensional laser image of scanned sintered abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (c) Two-dimensional grayscale scanned image of sintered abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (d) Three-dimensional grayscale scanned image of sintered abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (e) Two-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature of the sintered abutment at the implant-abutment surface. (f) Three-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature of the Sintered abutment at the implant-abutment surface

Click here to view
Figure 7: (a) Two-dimensional laser image of scanned milled abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (b) Three-dimensional laser image of scanned milled abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (c) Two-dimensional grayscale scanned image of milled abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (d) Three-dimensional grayscale scanned image of milled abutment at the implant-abutment junction. (e) Two-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature of the milled abutment at the implant-abutment surface. (f) Three-dimensional colored image showing depth and curvature of the milled abutment at the implant-abutment surface

Click here to view


Pairwise comparison of mean marginal misfit at the implant-abutment junction was done using Tukey's post hoc analysis to find the difference between the stock abutment, cast abutment, sintered abutment, and milled abutment [Table 2] Pairwise comparison showed a significant difference in the marginal misfit with cast abutments and sintered abutments when compared to stock abutments (P < 0.001). The difference in marginal misfit was insignificant between stock abutments and milled abutments (P = 0.052).
Table 2: Pairwise comparison of mean marginal misfit at the implant-abutment junction of the stock abutment, cast abutment, sintered abutment, and milled abutment

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The null hypothesis was rejected as differences exist in the marginal fit of stock implant abutments and customized implant abutments fabricated using different manufacturing processes.

In the majority of the implant systems, due to marginal discrepancies, microgaps may present at the implant-abutment connection. The implant platform which is usually presents at the crest level of the alveolar bone causes exposure at the bone-implant connection and leads to the colonization of microbes.[31],[32] These cause the passage of fluid at the interface and may lead to potential implant failure.[33],[34],[35],[36],[37]

Stock abutments work well for the posterior teeth, which are away from the esthetic zone. However, these abutments cannot control the marginal fit of the crown in a well-précised fashion due to the abutment height and implant depth. This lack of precision might lead to failure of the dental implant due to peri-implantitis.[1],[2] Abutments that lack proper surface proximity can also lead to screw loosening. Custom abutments fabricated with CAD/CAM on the other hand are very well customized and specific for the patients. These abutments can be accurately milled to fit the crest of the dental implant and the soft tissue to give a better fit and also improve esthetics.[10]

The roughness at the surface of the abutment usually creates a microgap at the implant-abutment connection and inhibits in obtaining a passive fit.[38],[39],[40],[41] Fernández et al.[19] in an in-vitro study compared the misfit of CoCr custom-made implant abutments with the external hexagonal connection using three different techniques (casting, laser sintering, and milling). They found that the abutments manufactured by the milling process showed the least microgap (0.73 μm), followed by sintered abutments (11.30 μm) and cast abutments (9.09 μm) in the mating surface of the implant-abutment area. Although no significant difference was found between sintered and cast abutment (P = 0.26). In the present study, a statistically significant difference was found for the misfit of CoCr custom-made implant abutments with the internal hexagonal connection among all the groups. Milled abutments showed the least marginal discrepancy (0.65 μm), followed by sintered abutments (1.67 μm) and cast abutments (2.44 μm). Milled abutment surface provides a better fit at the implant mating surface with more number of contacts and seals the microgap in a better way.[42],[43] Cast abutments had a high degree of marginal discrepancy which might be due to the expansion of investment products used which causes increased misfit.[10],[19]

Gonzalo et al.[21] compared the misfit among milled titanium versus laser sintered CoCr abutment at the implant-abutment interface with internal hexagon connection design. Regardless of the implant system the mean marginal misfit for the milled titanium abutments was less (0.75 ± 1.27 μm) compared to the CoCr laser sintered abutments (11.83 ± 13.21 μm). Although in the present study CoCr abutments were used for fabrication of both milled and Sintered abutments, still the obtained result was similar with less marginal discrepancy with Milled abutments (0.65 ± 0.041 μm) compared to the sintered abutments (1.67 ± 0.232 μm). Alonso-Pérez et al.[20] in an SEM study compared the marginal accuracy of titanium Stock abutments with custom-made CoCr laser sintered abutment and found that marginal accuracy was best for stock abutments with no measurable gap. A mean marginal gap of 2.5 ± 1.0 μm was found in laser sintered abutments. They stated that the difference in result may be due to the composition of the material, as titanium stock abutments were used in the study and not by the manufacturing process. In the present study also a similar result was obtained with titanium Stock abutments having the least marginal discrepancy. CoCr material was used for fabrication of customized abutments and among that laser sintered abutments had a more mean marginal gap (1.67 ± 0.232 μm) compared to the milled abutment (0.65 ± 0.041 μm).

Reported literature states that laser sintering causes distortion, porosity, and delamination and produces a rough connection between abutment and implant. This creates a microgap and inhibits achieving a passive fit.[19],[44],[45],[46] The present study with its finding supports that the migrogap created at the implant-abutment connection is not only due to abutment material and type of connection, but it is also due to the different manufacturing process.

In the present study, the CLSM imaging technique was used, as the resolution obtained is best compared to SEM In CLSM, true 3D images can be obtained by suppressing any signal coming from out-of-focus planes. Atomic force microscopy or scanning tunneling microscope produces the image with scanning by a fine tip over a surface, whereas CLSM does not require a probe to be placed close to the surface.[30] Illumination in CLSM is by a point laser in a 3D diffraction fashion.[28],[29],[47]

The use of CoCr alloy as an abutment is sparse. This material is used as an abutment would reduce the cost of implant-supported fixed restorations, so this study was done to find a marginal gap at the implant-abutment interface to find its suitability as an abutment with the different manufacturing processes. The findings of the present study also support that the marginal misfit was insignificant (P = 0.052) when CoCr milled abutments were compared with titanium stock abutments. The limitations of the study are that its an in-vitro study and only CoCr abutments with internal hexagonal implant connection were evaluated. Further in-vivo research is needed to be evaluated with different abutment materials to find the clinical relevance.


  Conclusion Top


The difference in marginal misfit exists between the titanium stock abutments and customized CoCr abutments. Among the customized abutments, Milled CoCr abutments have the least marginal discrepancy and Cast CoCr abutments have a maximum marginal discrepancy. Milled CoCr abutments can be used as an alternative to titanium stock abutments.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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